vertical integration

An Economic Perspective on Mexico's Nascent Deregulation of Retail Petroleum Markets

Retail petroleum markets in Mexico are on the cusp of a historic deregulation. For decades, all 11,000 gasoline stations nationwide have carried the brand of the state-owned petroleum company Pemex and sold Pemex gasoline at federally regulated …

Vertical Integration and Price Differentials in the U.S. Crude Oil Market

Vertical integration between regulated and unregulated businesses may create opportunities for upstream regulated assets to reduce input prices for their downstream operations. I provide the example of a refiner and pipeline owner in the U.S. crude …